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Step-by-Step Guide for Adding a Stack, Expanding Control Lines, and Building an Assembler

After the positive response to my first tutorial on expanding the RAM, I thought I'd continue the fun by expanding the capabilities of Ben's 8-bit CPU even further. That said, you'll need to have done the work in the previous post to be able to do this. You can get a sense for what we'll do in this Imgur gallery.
In this tutorial, we'll balance software and hardware improvements to make this a pretty capable machine:

Parts List

To only update the hardware, you'll need:
If you want to update the toolchain, you'll need:
  1. Arduino Mega 2560 (Amazon) to create the programmer.
  2. Ribbon Jumper Cables (Amazon) to connect the Arduino to the breadboard.
  3. TL866 II Plus EEPROM Programmer (Amazon) to program the ROM.
Bonus Clock Improvement: One additional thing I did is replace the 74LS04 inverter in Ben's clock circuit with a 74LS14 inverting Schmitt trigger (datasheet, Jameco). The pinouts are identical! Just drop it in, wire the existing lines, and then run the clock output through it twice (since it's inverting) to get a squeaky clean clock signal. Useful if you want to go even faster with the CPU.

Step 1: Program with an Arduino and Assembler (Image 1, Image 2)

There's a certain delight in the physical programming of a computer with switches. This is how Bill Gates and Paul Allen famously programmed the Altair 8800 and started Microsoft. But at some point, the hardware becomes limited by how effectively you can input the software. After upgrading the RAM, I quickly felt constrained by how long it took to program everything.
You can continue to program the computer physically if you want and even after upgrading that option is still available, so this step is optional. There's probably many ways to approach the programming, but this way felt simple and in the spirit of the build. We'll use an Arduino Mega 2560, like the one in Ben's 6502 build, to program the RAM. We'll start with a homemade assembler then switch to something more robust.
Preparing the Physical Interface
The first thing to do is prepare the CPU to be programmed by the Arduino. We already did the hard work on this in the RAM upgrade tutorial by using the bus to write to the RAM and disconnecting the control ROM while in program mode. Now we just need to route the appropriate lines to a convenient spot on the board to plug the Arduino into.
  1. This is optional, but I rewired all the DIP switches to have ground on one side, rather than alternating sides like Ben's build. This just makes it easier to route wires.
  2. Wire the 8 address lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) to a convenient point on the board. I put them on the far left, next to the address LEDs and above the write button circuit.
  3. Wire the 8 data lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) directly below the address lines. Make sure they're separated by the gutter so they're not connected.
  4. Wire a line from the write button to your input area. You want to connect the side of the button that's not connected to ground (the one going to the chip).
So now you have one convenient spot with 8 address lines, 8 data lines, and a write line. If you want to get fancy, you can wire them into some kind of connector, but I found that ribbon jumper cables work nicely and keep things tidy.
The way we'll program the RAM is to enter program mode and set all the DIP switches to the high position (e.g., 11111111). Since the switches are upside-down, this means they'll all be disconnected and not driving to ground. The address and write lines will simply be floating and the data lines will be weakly pulled up by 1k resistors. Either way, the Arduino can now drive the signals going into the chips using its outputs.
Creating the Arduino Programmer
Now that we can interface with an Arduino, we need to write some software. If you follow Ben's 6502 video, you'll have all the knowledge you need to get this working. If you want some hints and code, see below (source code):
  1. Create arrays for your data and address lines. For example: const char ADDRESS_LINES[] = {39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53};. Create your write line with #define RAM_WRITE 3.
  2. Create functions to enable and disable your address and data lines. You want to enable them before writing. Make sure to disable them afterward so that you can still manually program using DIP switches without disconnecting the Arduino. The code looks like this (just change INPUT to OUTPUT accordingly): for(int n = 0; n < 8; n += 1) { pinMode(ADDRESS_LINES[n], OUTPUT); }
  3. Create a function to write to an address. It'll look like void writeData(byte writeAddress, byte writeData) and basically use two loops, one for address and one for data, followed by toggling the write.
  4. Create a char array that contains your program and data. You can use #define to create opcodes like #define LDA 0x01.
  5. In your main function, loop through the program array and send it through writeData.
With this setup, you can now load multi-line programs in a fraction of a second! This can really come in handy with debugging by stress testing your CPU with software. Make sure to test your setup with existing programs you know run reliably. Now that you have your basic setup working, you can add 8 additional lines to read the bus and expand the program to let you read memory locations or even monitor the running of your CPU.
Making an Assembler
The above will serve us well but it's missing a key feature: labels. Labels are invaluable in assembly because they're so versatile. Jumps, subroutines, variables all use labels. The problem is that labels require parsing. Parsing is a fun project on the road to a compiler but not something I wanted to delve into right now--if you're interested, you can learn about Flex and Bison. Instead, I found a custom assembler that lets you define your CPU's instruction set and it'll do everything else for you. Let's get it setup:
  1. If you're on Windows, you can use the pre-built binaries. Otherwise, you'll need to install Rust and compile via cargo build.
  2. Create a file called 8bit.cpu and define your CPU instructions (source code). For example, LDA would be lda {address} -> 0x01 @ address[7:0]. What's cool is you can also now create the instruction's immediate variant instead of having to call it LDI: lda #{value} -> 0x05 @ value[7:0].
  3. You can now write assembly by adding #include "8bit.cpu" to the top of your code. There's a lot of neat features so make sure to read the documentation!
  4. Once you've written some assembly, you can generate the machine code using ./customasm yourprogram.s -f hexc -p. This prints out a char array just like our Arduino program used!
  5. Copy the char array into your Arduino program and send it to your CPU.
At this stage, you can start creating some pretty complex programs with ease. I would definitely play around with writing some larger programs. I actually found a bug in my hardware that was hidden for a while because my programs were never very complex!

Step 2: Expand the Control Lines (Image)

Before we can expand the CPU any further, we have to address the fact we're running out of control lines. An easy way to do this is to add a 3rd 28C16 ROM and be on your way. If you want something a little more involved but satisfying, read on.
Right now the control lines are one hot encoded. This means that if you have 4 lines, you can encode 4 states. But we know that a 4-bit binary number can encode 16 states. We'll use this principle via 74LS138 decoders, just like Ben used for the step counter.
Choosing the Control Line Combinations
Everything comes with trade-offs. In the case of combining control lines, it means the two control lines we choose to combine can never be activated at the same time. We can ensure this by encoding all the inputs together in the first 74LS138 and all the outputs together in a second 74LS138. We'll keep the remaining control lines directly connected.
Rewiring the Control Lines
If your build is anything like mine, the control lines are a bit of a mess. You'll need to be careful when rewiring to ensure it all comes back together correctly. Let's get to it:
  1. Place the two 74LS138 decoders on the far right side of the breadboard with the ROMs. Connect them to power and ground.
  2. You'll likely run out of inverters, so place a 74LS04 on the breadboard above your decoders. Connect it to power and ground.
  3. Carefully take your inputs (MI, RI, II, AI, BI, J) and wire them to the outputs of the left 74LS138. Do not wire anything to O0 because that's activated by 000 which won't work for us!
  4. Carefully take your outputs (RO, CO, AO, EO) and wire them to the outputs of the right 74LS138. Remember, do not wire anything to O0!
  5. Now, the 74LS138 outputs are active low, but the ROM outputs were active high. This means you need to swap the wiring on all your existing 74LS04 inverters for the LEDs and control lines to work. Make sure you track which control lines are supposed to be active high vs. active low!
  6. Wire E3 to power and E2 to ground. Connect the E1 on both 138s together, then connect it to the same line as OE on your ROMs. This will ensure that the outputs are disabled when you're in program mode. You can actually take off the 1k pull-up resistors from the previous tutorial at this stage, because the 138s actively drive the lines going to the 74LS04 inverters rather than floating like the ROMs.
At this point, you really need to ensure that the massive rewiring job was successful. Connect 3 jumper wires to A0-A2 and test all the combinations manually. Make sure the correct LED lights up and check with a multimeteoscilloscope that you're getting the right signal at each chip. Catching mistakes at this point will save you a lot of headaches! Now that everything is working, let's finish up:
  1. Connect A0-A2 of the left 74LS138 to the left ROM's A0-A2.
  2. Connect A0-A2 of the right 74LS138 to the right ROM's A0-A2.
  3. Distribute the rest of the control signals across the two ROMs.
Changing the ROM Code
This part is easy. We just need to update all of our #define with the new addresses and program the ROMs again. For clarity that we're not using one-hot encoding anymore, I recommend using hex instead of binary. So instead of #define MI 0b0000000100000000, we can use #define MI 0x0100, #define RI 0x0200, and so on.
Testing
Expanding the control lines required physically rewiring a lot of critical stuff, so small mistakes can creep up and make mysterious errors down the road. Write a program that activates each control line at least once and make sure it works properly! With your assembler and Arduino programmer, this should be trivial.
Bonus: Adding B Register Output
With the additional control lines, don't forget you can now add a BO signal easily which lets you fully use the B register.

Step 3: Add a Stack (Image 1, Image 2)

Adding a stack significantly expands the capability of the CPU. It enables subroutines, recursion, and handling interrupts (with some additional logic). We'll create our stack with an 8-bit stack pointer hard-coded from $0100 to $01FF, just like the 6502.
Wiring up the Stack Pointer
A stack pointer is conceptually similar to a program counter. It stores an address, you can read it and write to it, and it increments. The only difference between a stack pointer and a program counter is that the stack pointer must also decrement. To create our stack pointer, we'll use two 74LS193 4-bit up/down binary counters:
  1. Place a 74LS00 NAND gate, 74LS245 transceiver, and two 74LS193 counters in a row next to your output register. Wire up power and ground.
  2. Wire the the Carry output of the right 193 to the Count Up input of the left 193. Do the same for the Borrow output and Count Down input.
  3. Connect the Clear input between the two 193s and with an active high reset line. The B register has one you can use on its 74LS173s.
  4. Connect the Load input between the two 193s and to a new active low control line called SI on your 74LS138 decoder.
  5. Connect the QA-QD outputs of the lower counter to A8-A5 and the upper counter to A4-A1. Pay special attention because the output are in a weird order (BACD) and you want to make sure the lower A is connected to A8 and the upper A is connected to A4.
  6. Connect the A-D inputs of the lower counter to B8-B5 and the upper counter to B4-B1. Again, the inputs are in a weird order and on both sides of the chip so pay special attention.
  7. Connect the B1-B8 outputs of the 74LS245 transceiver to the bus.
  8. On the 74LS245 transceiver, connect DIR to power (high) and connect OE to a new active low control line called SO on your 74LS138 decoder.
  9. Add 8 LEDs and resistors to the lower part of the 74LS245 transceiver (A1-A8) so you can see what's going on with the stack pointer.
Enabling Increment & Decrement
We've now connected everything but the Count Up and Count Down inputs. The way the 74LS193 works is that if nothing is counting, both inputs are high. If you want to increment, you keep Count Down high and pulse Count Up. To decrement, you do the opposite. We'll use a 74LS00 NAND gate for this:
  1. Take the clock from the 74LS08 AND gate and make it an input into two different NAND gates on the 74LS00.
  2. Take the output from one NAND gate and wire it to the Count Up input on the lower 74LS193 counter. Take the other output and wire it to the Count Down input.
  3. Wire up a new active high control line called SP from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Up.
  4. Wire up a new active high control line called SM from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Down.
At this point, everything should be working. Your counter should be able to reset, input a value, output a value, and increment/decrement. But the issue is it'll be writing to $0000 to $00FF in the RAM! Let's fix that.
Accessing Higher Memory Addresses
We need the stack to be in a different place in memory than our regular program. The problem is, we only have an 8-bit bus, so how do we tell the RAM we want a higher address? We'll use a special control line to do this:
  1. Wire up an active high line called SA from the 28C16 ROM to A8 on the Cypress CY7C199 RAM.
  2. Add an LED and resistor so you can see when the stack is active.
That's it! Now, whenever we need the stack we can use a combination of the control line and stack pointer to access $0100 to $01FF.
Updating the Instruction Set
All that's left now is to create some instructions that utilize the stack. We'll need to settle some conventions before we begin:
If you want to add a little personal flair to your design, you can change the convention fairly easily. Let's implement push and pop (source code):
  1. Define all your new control lines, such as #define SI 0x0700 and #define SO 0x0005.
  2. Create two new instructions: PSH (1011) and POP (1100).
  3. PSH starts the same as any other for the first two steps: MI|CO and RO|II|CE. The next step is to put the contents of the stack pointer into the address register via MI|SO|SA. Recall that SA is the special control line that tells the memory to access the $01XX bank rather than $00XX.
  4. We then take the contents of AO and write it into the RAM. We can also increment the stack pointer at this stage. All of this is done via: AO|RI|SP|SA, followed by TR.
  5. POP is pretty similar. Start off with MI|CO and RO|II|CE. We then need to take a cycle and decrement the stack pointer with SM. Like with PSH, we then set the address register with MI|SO|SA.
  6. We now just need to output the RAM into our A register with RO|AI|SA and then end the instruction with TR.
  7. Updating the assembler is easy since neither instruction has operands. For example, push is just psh -> 0x0B.
And that's it! Write some programs that take advantage of your new 256 byte stack to make sure everything works as expected.

Step 4: Add Subroutine Instructions (Image)

The last step to complete our stack is to add subroutine instructions. This allows us to write complex programs and paves the way for things like interrupt handling.
Subroutines are like a blend of push/pop instructions and a jump. Basically, when you want to call a subroutine, you save your spot in the program by pushing the program counter onto the stack, then jumping to the subroutine's location in memory. When you're done with the subroutine, you simply pop the program counter value from the stack and jump back into it.
We'll follow 6502 conventions and only save and restore the program counter for subroutines. Other CPUs may choose to save more state, but it's generally left up to the programmer to ensure they're not wiping out states in their subroutines (e.g., push the A register at the start of your subroutine if you're messing with it and restore it before you leave).
Adding an Extra Opcode Line
I've started running low on opcodes at this point. Luckily, we still have two free address lines we can use. To enable 5-bit opcodes, simply wire up the 4Q output of your upper 74LS173 register to A7 of your 28C16 ROM (this assumes your opcodes are at A3-A6).
Updating the ROM Writer
At this point, you simply need to update the Arduino writer to support 32 instructions vs. the current 16. So, for example, UCODE_TEMPLATE[16][8] becomes UCODE_TEMPLATE[32][8] and you fill in the 16 new array elements with nop. The problem is that the Arduino only has so much memory and with the way Ben's code is written to support conditional jumps, it starts to get tight.
I bet the code can be re-written to handle this, but I had a TL866II Plus EEPROM programmer handy from the 6502 build and I felt it would be easier to start using that instead. Converting to a regular C program is really simple (source code):
  1. Copy all the #define, global const arrays (don't forget to expand them from 16 to 32), and void initUCode(). Add #include and #include to the top.
  2. In your traditional int main (void) C function, after initializing with initUCode(), make two arrays: char ucode_upper[2048] and char ucode_lower[2048].
  3. Take your existing loop code that loops through all addresses: for (int address = 0; address < 2048; address++).
  4. Modify instruction to be 5-bit with int instruction = (address & 0b00011111000) >> 3;.
  5. When writing, just write to the arrays like so: ucode_lower[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step]; and ucode_upper[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step] >> 8;.
  6. Open a new file with FILE *f = fopen("rom_upper.hex", "wb");, write to it with fwrite(ucode_upper, sizeof(char), sizeof(ucode_upper), f); and close it with fclose(f);. Repeat this with the lower ROM too.
  7. Compile your code using gcc (you can use any C compiler), like so: gcc -Wall makerom.c -o makerom.
Running your program will spit out two binary files with the full contents of each ROM. Writing the file via the TL866II Plus requires minipro and the following command: minipro -p CAT28C16A -w rom_upper.hex.
Adding Subroutine Instructions
At this point, I cleaned up my instruction set layout a bit. I made psh and pop 1000 and 1001, respectively. I then created two new instructions: jsr and rts. These allow us to jump to a subroutine and returns from a subroutine. They're relatively simple:
  1. For jsr, the first three steps are the same as psh: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, MI|SO|SA.
  2. On the next step, instead of AO we use CO to save the program counter to the stack: CO|RI|SP|SA.
  3. We then essentially read the 2nd byte to do a jump and terminate: MI|CO, RO|J.
  4. For rts, the first four steps are the same as pop: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, SM, MI|SO|SA.
  5. On the next step, instead of AI we use J to load the program counter with the contents in stack: RO|J|SA.
  6. We're not done! If we just left this as-is, we'd jump to the 2nd byte of jsr which is not an opcode, but a memory address. All hell would break loose! We need to add a CE step to increment the program counter and then terminate.
Once you update the ROM, you should have fully functioning subroutines with 5-bit opcodes. One great way to test them is to create a recursive program to calculate something--just don't go too deep or you'll end up with a stack overflow!

Conclusion

And that's it! Another successful upgrade of your 8-bit CPU. You now have a very capable machine and toolchain. At this point I would have a bunch of fun with the software aspects. In terms of hardware, there's a number of ways to go from here:
  1. Interrupts. Interrupts are just special subroutines triggered by an external line. You can make one similar to how Ben did conditional jumps. The only added complexity is the need to load/save the flags register since an interrupt can happen at any time and you don't want to destroy the state. Given this would take more than 8 steps, you'd also need to add another line for the step counter (see below).
  2. ROM expansion. At this point, address lines on the ROM are getting tight which limits any expansion possibilities. With the new approach to ROM programming, it's trivial to switch out the 28C16 for the 28C256 that Ben uses in the 6502. These give you 4 additional address lines for flags/interrupts, opcodes, and steps.
  3. LCD output. At this point, adding a 16x2 character LCD like Ben uses in the 6502 is very possible.
  4. Segment/bank register. It's essentially a 2nd memory address register that lets you access 256-byte segments/banks of RAM using bank switching. This lets you take full advantage of the 32K of RAM in the Cypress chip.
  5. Fast increment instructions. Add these to registers by replacing 74LS173s with 74LS193s, allowing you to more quickly increment without going through the ALU. This is used to speed up loops and array operations.
submitted by MironV to beneater [link] [comments]

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX - Composite TV-Out for your Pi4!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX

A CRTPi image for running 240p via 3.5mm Composite on the Raspberry Pi4
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (PAL Only) 5/18/2020
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (NTSC&&PAL) 5/17/2020
Changelog: v3.0F for RCA 5/11/2020
Changelog: v2.0F for RCA 4/1/2020
Changelog: v1.1FX 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.0F Hotfix 10/31/2019
Changelog: v1.0F 10/29/2019
Changelog: v0.4 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 10/2/2019
How does this even work!?
The amazing u/b0xspread has found a way to enforce modeswitching by watching the logs and processes, and continuing to enforce our desired mode long after the system wants to revert back. We're both expanding this scripting further to hopefully solve the same issues on the RGB and VGA forks -- but progress is slow due to the complex and varied nature of available resolution modes on those builds. But for now, let's just call this "black magic."
What Does That Look Like?
Here are some examples of games being played in beautiful 240p on CRT sets using the RCA Image!.
What is Different?
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 72132587 commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • Full Apt-Upgrade for newest firmware and app dependancies (Recommended to repeat this function on your own Pi4)
  • 4GB (3872256 KB Uncompressed Image) (Compressed via WinRAR to 1043540KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Heavily modified Sakitoshi CRT-TVout script for switching between 480i and 240p
  • Further modified Sakitoshi script by u/b0xspread to allow video resolution switching on Pi4 Architecture
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi4 (disabled by default) [RECOMMENDED!]
  • NTSC @ 60hz 720/640x480 480i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • PAL @ 50hz 720/640x576 576i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 640x480 Progressive (240 lines) for Retroarch
  • PAL @ 50hz 640x576 Progressive (288 lines) for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Optional 480i mode for PSX and Arcade games
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Preloaded with 4:3 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx pallete
  • Retroarch Picodrive (SMS/32X) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 with 1X Sega Mastersystem & 1X Sega 32X resolution
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with 2x integer scale SGB Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with 2x integer scale GBP Overlay
  • Other Retroarch handheld emulators preset for optimized wide display with overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini theme configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B+. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
Runahead Tested ~60FPS Stable:
  • Game Gear
  • Game Boy
  • Game Boy Color
  • Game Boy Advance
  • Master System
  • Megadrive
  • NES
  • PC Engine
  • PCE-CD
  • Sega 32X
  • Sega CD
  • SNES
Runahead Tested < 50FPS Unstable:
  • FB Neo
  • FB Alpha
  • Mame
  • N64
  • PlayStation
  • PSP
Runahead Untested:
  • Atari 800
  • Atari 2600
  • Atari 5200
  • Atari 7800
  • Atari Lynx
  • Coleco
  • Intellivision
  • MSX
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copywritten games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi4-RCA NTSC v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 60hz
MD5: 7df8453c2e8029b06def7864351ec768 
CRTPi4-RCA PAL-D v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 50hz
MD5: ab2bd6ab228bd6f58a22de15044fb46a 
How do I install the Arcade Configuration Pack?
These are the resolution-correct preset arcade configs for MAME/FBA including vertical games. There is roughly 38K files in there, spread out across several systems (arcade, fba, mame-libretro, and neogeo). Having these pre-installed would not allow either image to fit on the SD card used, and may not be needed for everyone. It's a fairly simple process that won't take more than a few minutes of your time.
  • Drop to shell or connect via SSH, and navigate to root (cd /)
  • Download the CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip with the command:
    sudo wget https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/raw/masteCRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Unzip and overwrite files with the command:
    sudo unzip -o -q CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Remove the zip with the command
    sudo rm CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Restore read/write access to the files you have overwritten with the command:
    sudo chmod a+rw -R /opt/retropie/configs/
How can I take full advantage of the 480i/240p Switching?
To force 480i for a system or game, you can create a '480i.txt' file inside the configuration folder of the system with a list of the file names (case insensitive, extension optional but recommended) you want to force.
If you wish to force 480i for a whole system, you can write "all" inside the '480i.txt' file.
Alternatively you can create a "240p.txt" file to force 480i to all games except for the ones inside the list.
You can read more about the script functionality here.
Example:
/opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" to force 480i for the file "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" /opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i for all the PlayStation games. /opt/retropie/configs/ports/kodi/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i on Kodi. 
I have X Issue! Help?
Why isn't there a Pi4 PAL version?
Try as I might, I have been unable to get a PAL signal out of the SDTV port on a Pi4. My BVM displays PAL-S and PAL-D fine, but neither will get anything but static. I don't even get a rolling B&W image, just horrible static. If you figure out a way, let me know!
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
I want to switch back to lr-mupen64plus!
  • When launching an n64 game, mash buttons on the controller until the runcommand window comes up.
  • Select on "1 Set default emulator for n64" and choose "lr-mupen64plus"
  • Then "Q Exit (without launching)"
  • Launch the game again -- it will launch in the chosen emulator at the proper resolution
What A/V cable should I use for 3.5mm Composite?
I recommend the Zune A/V cable or XBOX 360E cable, you can find them on eBay and Amazon.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
submitted by ErantyInt to u/ErantyInt [link] [comments]

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX - Composite TV-Out for your Pi4!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX

A CRTPi image for running 240p via 3.5mm Composite on the Raspberry Pi4
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (PAL Only) 5/18/2020
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (NTSC&&PAL) 5/17/2020
Changelog: v3.0F for RCA 5/11/2020
Changelog: v2.0F for RCA 4/1/2020
Changelog: v1.1FX 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.0F Hotfix 10/31/2019
Changelog: v1.0F 10/29/2019
Changelog: v0.4 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 10/2/2019
How does this even work!?
The amazing u/b0xspread has found a way to enforce modeswitching by watching the logs and processes, and continuing to enforce our desired mode long after the system wants to revert back. We're both expanding this scripting further to hopefully solve the same issues on the RGB and VGA forks -- but progress is slow due to the complex and varied nature of available resolution modes on those builds. But for now, let's just call this "black magic."
What Does That Look Like?
Here are some examples of games being played in beautiful 240p on CRT sets using the RCA Image!.
What is Different?
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 72132587 commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • Full Apt-Upgrade for newest firmware and app dependancies (Recommended to repeat this function on your own Pi4)
  • 4GB (3872256 KB Uncompressed Image) (Compressed via WinRAR to 1043540KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Heavily modified Sakitoshi CRT-TVout script for switching between 480i and 240p
  • Further modified Sakitoshi script by u/b0xspread to allow video resolution switching on Pi4 Architecture
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi4 (disabled by default) [RECOMMENDED!]
  • NTSC @ 60hz 720/640x480 480i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • PAL @ 50hz 720/640x576 576i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 640x480 Progressive (240 lines) for Retroarch
  • PAL @ 50hz 640x576 Progressive (288 lines) for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Optional 480i mode for PSX and Arcade games
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Preloaded with 4:3 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx pallete
  • Retroarch Picodrive (SMS/32X) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 with 1X Sega Mastersystem & 1X Sega 32X resolution
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with 2x integer scale SGB Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with 2x integer scale GBP Overlay
  • Other Retroarch handheld emulators preset for optimized wide display with overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini theme configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B+. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
Runahead Tested ~60FPS Stable:
  • Game Gear
  • Game Boy
  • Game Boy Color
  • Game Boy Advance
  • Master System
  • Megadrive
  • NES
  • PC Engine
  • PCE-CD
  • Sega 32X
  • Sega CD
  • SNES
Runahead Tested < 50FPS Unstable:
  • FB Neo
  • FB Alpha
  • Mame
  • N64
  • PlayStation
  • PSP
Runahead Untested:
  • Atari 800
  • Atari 2600
  • Atari 5200
  • Atari 7800
  • Atari Lynx
  • Coleco
  • Intellivision
  • MSX
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copywritten games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi4-RCA NTSC v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 60hz
MD5: 7df8453c2e8029b06def7864351ec768 
CRTPi4-RCA PAL-D v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 50hz
MD5: ab2bd6ab228bd6f58a22de15044fb46a 
How do I install the Arcade Configuration Pack?
These are the resolution-correct preset arcade configs for MAME/FBA including vertical games. There is roughly 38K files in there, spread out across several systems (arcade, fba, mame-libretro, and neogeo). Having these pre-installed would not allow either image to fit on the SD card used, and may not be needed for everyone. It's a fairly simple process that won't take more than a few minutes of your time.
  • Drop to shell or connect via SSH, and navigate to root (cd /)
  • Download the CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip with the command:
    sudo wget https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/raw/masteCRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Unzip and overwrite files with the command:
    sudo unzip -o -q CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Remove the zip with the command
    sudo rm CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Restore read/write access to the files you have overwritten with the command:
    sudo chmod a+rw -R /opt/retropie/configs/
How can I take full advantage of the 480i/240p Switching?
To force 480i for a system or game, you can create a '480i.txt' file inside the configuration folder of the system with a list of the file names (case insensitive, extension optional but recommended) you want to force.
If you wish to force 480i for a whole system, you can write "all" inside the '480i.txt' file.
Alternatively you can create a "240p.txt" file to force 480i to all games except for the ones inside the list.
You can read more about the script functionality here.
Example:
/opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" to force 480i for the file "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" /opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i for all the PlayStation games. /opt/retropie/configs/ports/kodi/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i on Kodi. 
I have X Issue! Help?
Why isn't there a Pi4 PAL version?
Try as I might, I have been unable to get a PAL signal out of the SDTV port on a Pi4. My BVM displays PAL-S and PAL-D fine, but neither will get anything but static. I don't even get a rolling B&W image, just horrible static. If you figure out a way, let me know!
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
I want to switch back to lr-mupen64plus!
  • When launching an n64 game, mash buttons on the controller until the runcommand window comes up.
  • Select on "1 Set default emulator for n64" and choose "lr-mupen64plus"
  • Then "Q Exit (without launching)"
  • Launch the game again -- it will launch in the chosen emulator at the proper resolution
What A/V cable should I use for 3.5mm Composite?
I recommend the Zune A/V cable or XBOX 360E cable, you can find them on eBay and Amazon.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
submitted by ErantyInt to crtgaming [link] [comments]

CRTPi-RGB v3.0 - Buster Busts Loose!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi-RGB v3.0

A CRTPi image for running 240p via GPIO RGB DAC Hats
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.0 for 888 & 666 05/12/2020 - Emergency Fixes
Changelog: v3.0 for 888 & 666 05/08/2020
Changelog: v2.0 for 888 & 666 03/25/2020
Changelog: v1.1X for 666 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.1X for 888 & 666 12/19/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 11/7/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 666 10/24/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 for 888 & 666 10/2/2019
Changelog: v0.2 for 888 09/27/2019
Changelog: v0.1 for 888 09/20/2019
Required Hardware:
What is a RetroTINK? Or a VGA666?
RetroTINK is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi3/3B+ that converts digital video signal back into 24-bit analog. It provides output over RCA, S-Video, Component, and VGA -- as well as supporting CSYNC, super-resolutions, and custom resolution timings.
VGA666 is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog out via VGA. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
Pi2SCART is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog RGB out via SCART. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
What Does That Even Mean?
It makes your Pi capable of outputting a true 240p analog signal for CRT televisions and monitors, and is capable of 5x (1600x240) and higher super resolutions.
What Does That Look Like?
I don't have the greatest pics saved for comparison, but here's some examples of the 888.
What is Different? (888 & 666)
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 7c5e31bb commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • 4GB (3872256 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 982256 KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Custom /boot/config.txt settings for DPI output and custom HDMI timings
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • Modified Michael Vencio's Runcommand “On Start” and “On End” scripts to automatically change the resolution system-by-system and game-by-game
  • Modified Runcommand "On Start" script to allow creation of game-specific arcade configs for arcade/fba/mame-libretro/neogeo
  • NTSC @ 60hz 320x240 resolution for Emulationstation and DOSBox/ScummVM/Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 2048x240, 1920x240, and 1600x240 resolution for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles with art by chipsnblip
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Preloaded with custom runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Preconfigured MOST Retroarch emulators for proper Integer Scale SuperRes
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 8:7 vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx palette
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (SGB2 auto coloration) mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini (default) and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
  • Custom Retropie menu scripts for switching between Retrotink and VGA666-based hardware ___
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
To disable runahead for a game (or emulator):
Quick Menu > Latency > Run-Ahead to Reduce Latency > OFF 
What about your new Per-Game Configs and Snap-Shader?
The RGB and VGA forks are now utilizing Snap-Shader, plus a newly-enhanced runcommand-onstart script, with provision for user-specified per-game configuration!
Here's the new script:
https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/blob/masteRGB-to_opt/retropie/configs/all/runcommand-onstart.sh 
Here's information about Snap-Shader:
https://github.com/ektgit/snap-shader-240p 
And here's a quick rundown on how it works:
Not only does the new script carry forward the per-core scripting for 2048x / 1920x / and 1600x resolutions -- but adds per-game scripting by adding a text file to the system config and naming the rom(s) within the file. This allows you to force 2048x on a system that defaults to 1920x. This is especially useful for PSX, FDS, PCE/PCE-CD, and MAME for the few games that are 256 or 512 wide. Below are some example config files:
/opt/retropie/conifgs/psx/256.txt
Brave Prove Castlevania - Symphony of the Night Crash Bandicoot Final Fantasy Origins Final Fantasy Tactics 
/opt/retropie/conifgs/megadrive/256.txt
Bubble And Squeak Bubsy in - Claws Encounters of the Furred Kind Bugs Bunny in Double Trouble Caesars Palace Captain America and the Avengers 
/opt/retropie/conifgs/fds/320.txt
Akumajou Dracula Donkey Kong Otocky Super Mario Brothers 2 
You get the jist. It doesn't need an extension, not case sensitive, but should match the ROM name (including punctuation) exactly. This forces them to launch in 2048x240p instead of the default 1920x240p. This gives the end user full control on a game-per-game basis over the horizontal integer. You'll still need to write a retroarch game config to override the defaults there, but this at least gets you the right field. For games with odd/shifting vertical resolutions (like Chrono Cross, Battle Arena Toshinden, Castlevania SotN, etc.), a single pass of snap-shader is applied (snap-basic, nearest neighbor filtering, and "don't care" scale).
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copy-written games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Google Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi-RGB v3.0: For Pi3B/3B+ with Retrotink, Pi2SCART, RGB-Pi, or VGA666
MD5: d9d28f5ae8fe5cc829348be4b5a103fc 
Install Instructions:
For Retrotink Ultimate:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options.
  • Reboot from Raspi-Config, and enjoy your Pi!
For Pi2SCART/RGB-Pi/VGA666:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • BEFORE BOOTING Edit 'config.txt' on your SD card's BOOT partition, uncomment the section relevant to your device, and comment all other devices.
    ## Pi2SCART & VGA666 only!!
    #dtoverlay=vga666
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #Pi2SCART/VGA666 [email protected]
    __
    ## RGB-Pi only!!
    #dtoverlay=pwm-2chan,pin=18,func=2,pin2=19,func2=2
    #dtoverlay=rgb-pi
    #dpi_output_format=6
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RGB-Pi [email protected]
    __
    ## RetroTINK Ultimate only!!
    #dtoverlay=dpi24
    #dpi_output_format=519
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RetroTINK [email protected]
__
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options, then reboot.
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable VGA666" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot. Enjoy your Pi!
To Revert VGA666 to Retrotink Settings
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable Retrotink" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot with the new settings.
Default Retroarch Keyboard Hotkeys
*SPACE: Enable Hotkey* F1 Menu F2 FF Toggle F3 Reset F4 Cheat Toggle F5 Save State F6 Load State F7 Change State - F8 Change State + F9 Screenshot F10 Mute ENTER: Exit 
I have X Issue! Help?
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
Timings for Boot and Runcommand
320 x 240p @ 60hz Timings: Emulationstation, DOSBox, ScummVM, etc.
320 1 15 30 42 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 Retrotink 320x240p Timing 320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #VGA666 320x240p Timing 
Integer Scale Super-Resolution 240p @ 60hz Timings: All Retroarch Emulators
2048 1 160 202 320 240 1 3 5 14 0 0 0 60 0 42954545 1 #256x240/224p 1920 1 137 247 295 240 1 3 7 12 0 0 0 60 0 40860000 1 #320x240/224p 1600 1 73 157 204 240 1 4 3 15 0 0 0 60 0 32000000 1 #320x240/224p Alternate 
submitted by ErantyInt to u/ErantyInt [link] [comments]

CRTPi-RGB v2.0 - A Whole New World!

CRTPi Project Presents:

DEPRECIATED BUILD, SEE VERSION 3.0!

CRTPi-RGB v2.0

A CRTPi image for running 240p via GPIO RGB DAC Hats
Other Releases:
Changelog: v2.0 for 888 & 666 03/25/2020
Changelog: v1.1X for 666 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.1X for 888 & 666 12/19/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 11/7/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 666 10/24/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 for 888 & 666 10/2/2019
Changelog: v0.2 for 888 09/27/2019
Changelog: v0.1 for 888 09/20/2019
Required Hardware:
What is a RetroTINK? Or a VGA666?
RetroTINK is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi3/3B+ that converts digital video signal back into 24-bit analog. It provides output over RCA, S-Video, Component, and VGA -- as well as supporting CSYNC, super-resolutions, and custom resolution timings.
VGA666 is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog out via VGA. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
Pi2SCART is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog RGB out via SCART. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
What Does That Even Mean?
It makes your Pi capable of outputting a true 240p analog signal for CRT televisions and monitors, and is capable of 5x (1600x240) and higher super resolutions.
What Does That Look Like?
I don't have the greatest pics saved for comparison, but here's some examples of the 888.
What is Different? (888 & 666)
  • Retropie 4.5.17 (build 32617750 commit 03/21/20)
  • Retroarch 1.8.4
  • 8GB (7892992 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 4658943 KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Custom /boot/config.txt settings for DPI output and custom HDMI timings
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • Modified Michael Vencio's Runcommand “On Start” and “On End” scripts to automatically change the resolution system-by-system
  • Modified Runcommand "On Start" script to allow creation of game-specific arcade configs for arcade/fba/mame-libretro/neogeo
  • NTSC @ 60hz 320x240 resolution for Emulationstation and DOSBox/ScummVM/Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 2048x240, 1920x240, and 1600x240 resolution for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles with art by chipsnblip
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Kodi 18.2 w/ Convergence Theme
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Preconfigured MOST Retroarch emulators for proper Integer Scale SuperRes
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 8:7 vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx palette
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (SGB2 auto coloration) mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini (default) and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Emulationstation preloaded with PietDAmore's 240p Honey and Bubblegum themes
  • Emulationstation preloaded with KALEL1981's Super-Retroboy theme
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
  • Custom Retropie menu scripts for switching between Retrotink and VGA666-based hardware ___
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
To disable runahead for a game (or emulator):
Quick Menu > Latency > Run-Ahead to Reduce Latency > OFF 
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copy-written games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Google Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!

DEPRECIATED BUILD, PLEASE SEE VERSION 3.0!

CRTPi-RGB v2.0: For Pi3B/3B+ with Retrotink, Pi2SCART, RGB-Pi, or VGA666
MD5: f860516358f5c2941de3bc6170234b88 
Install Instructions:
For Retrotink Ultimate:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options.
  • Reboot from Raspi-Config, and enjoy your Pi!
For Pi2SCART/RGB-Pi/VGA666:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • BEFORE BOOTING Edit 'config.txt' on your SD card's BOOT partition, uncomment the section relevant to your device, and comment all other devices.
    ## Pi2SCART & VGA666 only!!
    #dtoverlay=vga666
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #Pi2SCART/VGA666 [email protected]
    __
    ## RGB-Pi only!!
    #dtoverlay=pwm-2chan,pin=18,func=2,pin2=19,func2=2
    #dtoverlay=rgb-pi
    #dpi_output_format=6
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RGB-Pi [email protected]
    __
    ## RetroTINK Ultimate only!!
    #dtoverlay=dpi24
    #dpi_output_format=519
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RetroTINK [email protected]
__
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options, then reboot.
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable VGA666" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot. Enjoy your Pi!
To Revert VGA666 to Retrotink Settings
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable Retrotink" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot with the new settings.
Default Retroarch Keyboard Hotkeys
*SPACE: Enable Hotkey* F1 Menu F2 FF Toggle F3 Reset F4 Cheat Toggle F5 Save State F6 Load State F7 Change State - F8 Change State + F9 Screenshot F10 Mute ENTER: Exit 
I have X Issue! Help?
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
Timings for Boot and Runcommand
320 x 240p @ 60hz Timings: Emulationstation, DOSBox, ScummVM, etc.
320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 Retrotink 320x240p Timing 320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #VGA666 320x240p Timing 
Integer Scale Super-Resolution 240p @ 60hz Timings: All Retroarch Emulators
2048 1 180 202 300 240 1 3 5 14 0 0 0 60 0 42954545 1 #256x240/224p 1920 1 152 247 280 240 1 3 7 12 0 0 0 60 0 40860000 1 #320x240/224p 1600 1 85 157 192 240 1 4 3 15 0 0 0 60 0 32000000 1 #320x240/224p Alternate 
submitted by ErantyInt to u/ErantyInt [link] [comments]

CRTPi-RGB v2.0: A Whole New World!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi-RGB v2.0

A CRTPi image for 240p via RGB DAC Hats
Other Releases:
Changelog: v2.0 for 888 & 666 03/25/2020
Changelog: v1.1X for 666 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.1X for 888 & 666 12/19/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 11/7/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 666 10/24/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 for 888 & 666 10/2/2019
Changelog: v0.2 for 888 09/27/2019
Changelog: v0.1 for 888 09/20/2019
Required Hardware:
What is a RetroTINK? Or a VGA666?
RetroTINK is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi3/3B+ that converts digital video signal back into 24-bit analog. It provides output over RCA, S-Video, Component, and VGA -- as well as supporting CSYNC, super-resolutions, and custom resolution timings.
VGA666 is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog out via VGA. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
Pi2SCART is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog RGB out via SCART. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
What Does That Even Mean?
It makes your Pi capable of outputting a true 240p analog signal for CRT televisions and monitors, and is capable of 5x (1600x240) and higher super resolutions.
What Does That Look Like?
I don't have the greatest pics saved for comparison, but here's some examples of the 888.
What is Different? (888 & 666)
  • Retropie 4.5.17 (build 32617750 commit 03/21/20)
  • Retroarch 1.8.4
  • 8GB (7892992 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 4658943 KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Custom /boot/config.txt settings for DPI output and custom HDMI timings
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • Modified Michael Vencio's Runcommand “On Start” and “On End” scripts to automatically change the resolution system-by-system
  • Modified Runcommand "On Start" script to allow creation of game-specific arcade configs for arcade/fba/mame-libretro/neogeo
  • NTSC @ 60hz 320x240 resolution for Emulationstation and DOSBox/ScummVM/Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 2048x240, 1920x240, and 1600x240 resolution for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles with art by chipsnblip
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Kodi 18.2 w/ Convergence Theme
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Preconfigured MOST Retroarch emulators for proper Integer Scale SuperRes
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 8:7 vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx palette
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (SGB2 auto coloration) mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini (default) and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Emulationstation preloaded with PietDAmore's 240p Honey and Bubblegum themes
  • Emulationstation preloaded with KALEL1981's Super-Retroboy theme
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
  • Custom Retropie menu scripts for switching between Retrotink and VGA666-based hardware ___
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
To disable runahead for a game (or emulator):
Quick Menu > Latency > Run-Ahead to Reduce Latency > OFF 
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copy-written games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Google Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi-RGB v2.0: For Pi3B/3B+ with Retrotink, Pi2SCART, RGB-Pi, or VGA666
MD5: f860516358f5c2941de3bc6170234b88 
Install Instructions:
For Retrotink Ultimate:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options.
  • Reboot from Raspi-Config, and enjoy your Pi!
For Pi2SCART/RGB-Pi/VGA666:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • BEFORE BOOTING Edit 'config.txt' on your SD card's BOOT partition, uncomment the section relevant to your device, and comment all other devices.
    ## Pi2SCART & VGA666 only!!
    #dtoverlay=vga666
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #Pi2SCART/VGA666 [email protected]
    __
    ## RGB-Pi only!!
    #dtoverlay=pwm-2chan,pin=18,func=2,pin2=19,func2=2
    #dtoverlay=rgb-pi
    #dpi_output_format=6
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RGB-Pi [email protected]
    __
    ## RetroTINK Ultimate only!!
    #dtoverlay=dpi24
    #dpi_output_format=519
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RetroTINK [email protected]
__
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options, then reboot.
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable VGA666" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot. Enjoy your Pi!
To Revert VGA666 to Retrotink Settings
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable Retrotink" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot with the new settings.
Default Retroarch Keyboard Hotkeys
*SPACE: Enable Hotkey* F1 Menu F2 FF Toggle F3 Reset F4 Cheat Toggle F5 Save State F6 Load State F7 Change State - F8 Change State + F9 Screenshot F10 Mute ENTER: Exit 
I have X Issue! Help?
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
Timings for Boot and Runcommand
320 x 240p @ 60hz Timings: Emulationstation, DOSBox, ScummVM, etc.
320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 Retrotink 320x240p Timing 320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #VGA666 320x240p Timing 
Integer Scale Super-Resolution 240p @ 60hz Timings: All Retroarch Emulators
2048 1 180 202 300 240 1 3 5 14 0 0 0 60 0 42954545 1 #256x240/224p 1920 1 152 247 280 240 1 3 7 12 0 0 0 60 0 40860000 1 #320x240/224p 1600 1 85 157 192 240 1 4 3 15 0 0 0 60 0 32000000 1 #320x240/224p Alternate 
submitted by ErantyInt to crtgaming [link] [comments]

CRTPi-RGB v3.0 - Buster Busts Loose!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi-RGB v3.0

A CRTPi image for running 240p via GPIO RGB DAC Hats
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.0 for 888 & 666 05/08/2020
Changelog: v2.0 for 888 & 666 03/25/2020
Changelog: v1.1X for 666 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.1X for 888 & 666 12/19/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 11/7/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 666 10/24/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 for 888 & 666 10/2/2019
Changelog: v0.2 for 888 09/27/2019
Changelog: v0.1 for 888 09/20/2019
Required Hardware:
What is a RetroTINK? Or a VGA666?
RetroTINK is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi3/3B+ that converts digital video signal back into 24-bit analog. It provides output over RCA, S-Video, Component, and VGA -- as well as supporting CSYNC, super-resolutions, and custom resolution timings.
VGA666 is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog out via VGA. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
Pi2SCART is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog RGB out via SCART. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
What Does That Even Mean?
It makes your Pi capable of outputting a true 240p analog signal for CRT televisions and monitors, and is capable of 5x (1600x240) and higher super resolutions.
What Does That Look Like?
I don't have the greatest pics saved for comparison, but here's some examples of the 888.
What is Different? (888 & 666)
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 7c5e31bb commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • 4GB (3872256 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 982256 KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Custom /boot/config.txt settings for DPI output and custom HDMI timings
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • Modified Michael Vencio's Runcommand “On Start” and “On End” scripts to automatically change the resolution system-by-system and game-by-game
  • Modified Runcommand "On Start" script to allow creation of game-specific arcade configs for arcade/fba/mame-libretro/neogeo
  • NTSC @ 60hz 320x240 resolution for Emulationstation and DOSBox/ScummVM/Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 2048x240, 1920x240, and 1600x240 resolution for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles with art by chipsnblip
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Preloaded with custom runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Preconfigured MOST Retroarch emulators for proper Integer Scale SuperRes
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 8:7 vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx palette
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (SGB2 auto coloration) mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with Integer Scale Overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini (default) and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
  • Custom Retropie menu scripts for switching between Retrotink and VGA666-based hardware ___
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
To disable runahead for a game (or emulator):
Quick Menu > Latency > Run-Ahead to Reduce Latency > OFF 
What about your new Per-Game Configs and Snap-Shader?
The RGB and VGA forks are now utilizing Snap-Shader, plus a newly-enhanced runcommand-onstart script, with provision for user-specified per-game configuration!
Here's the new script:
https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/blob/masteRGB-to_opt/retropie/configs/all/runcommand-onstart.sh 
Here's information about Snap-Shader:
https://github.com/ektgit/snap-shader-240p 
And here's a quick rundown on how it works:
Not only does the new script carry forward the per-core scripting for 2048x / 1920x / and 1600x resolutions -- but adds per-game scripting by adding a text file to the system config and naming the rom(s) within the file. This allows you to force 2048x on a system that defaults to 1920x. This is especially useful for PSX, FDS, PCE/PCE-CD, and MAME for the few games that are 256 or 512 wide. Below are some example config files:
/opt/retropie/conifgs/psx/256.txt
Brave Prove Castlevania - Symphony of the Night Crash Bandicoot Final Fantasy Origins Final Fantasy Tactics 
/opt/retropie/conifgs/megadrive/256.txt
Bubble And Squeak Bubsy in - Claws Encounters of the Furred Kind Bugs Bunny in Double Trouble Caesars Palace Captain America and the Avengers 
You get the jist. It doesn't need an extension, not case sensitive, but should match the ROM name (including punctuation) exactly. This forces them to launch in 2048x240p instead of the default 1920x240p. This gives the end user full control on a game-per-game basis over the horizontal integer. You'll still need to write a retroarch game config to override the defaults there, but this at least gets you the right field. For games with odd/shifting vertical resolutions (like Chrono Cross, Battle Arena Toshinden, Castlevania SotN, etc.), a single pass of snap-shader is applied (snap-basic, nearest neighbor filtering, and "don't care" scale).
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copy-written games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Google Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi-RGB v3.0: For Pi3B/3B+ with Retrotink, Pi2SCART, RGB-Pi, or VGA666
MD5: aefbf8eb28d8dd9e1ba6f767725c38cb 
Install Instructions:
For Retrotink Ultimate:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options.
  • Reboot from Raspi-Config, and enjoy your Pi!
For Pi2SCART/RGB-Pi/VGA666:
  • Download image and unRAR it.
  • Flash to your SD card with Win32DiskImager or Etcher.
  • BEFORE BOOTING Edit 'config.txt' on your SD card's BOOT partition, uncomment the section relevant to your device, and comment all other devices.
    ## Pi2SCART & VGA666 only!!
    #dtoverlay=vga666
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #Pi2SCART/VGA666 [email protected]
    __
    ## RGB-Pi only!!
    #dtoverlay=pwm-2chan,pin=18,func=2,pin2=19,func2=2
    #dtoverlay=rgb-pi
    #dpi_output_format=6
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RGB-Pi [email protected]
    __
    ## RetroTINK Ultimate only!!
    #dtoverlay=dpi24
    #dpi_output_format=519
    #hdmi_timings=320 1 23 30 34 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RetroTINK [email protected]
__
  • Boot as normal, run Raspi-Config, and choose Expand Filesystem from Advanced Options, then reboot.
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable VGA666" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot. Enjoy your Pi!
To Revert VGA666 to Retrotink Settings
  • In Emulationstation, run "Enable Retrotink" from the Retropie menu.
  • Your system will automatically reboot with the new settings.
Default Retroarch Keyboard Hotkeys
*SPACE: Enable Hotkey* F1 Menu F2 FF Toggle F3 Reset F4 Cheat Toggle F5 Save State F6 Load State F7 Change State - F8 Change State + F9 Screenshot F10 Mute ENTER: Exit 
I have X Issue! Help?
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
Timings for Boot and Runcommand
320 x 240p @ 60hz Timings: Emulationstation, DOSBox, ScummVM, etc.
320 1 15 30 42 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 Retrotink 320x240p Timing 320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #VGA666 320x240p Timing 
Integer Scale Super-Resolution 240p @ 60hz Timings: All Retroarch Emulators
2048 1 160 202 320 240 1 3 5 14 0 0 0 60 0 42954545 1 #256x240/224p 1920 1 137 247 295 240 1 3 7 12 0 0 0 60 0 40860000 1 #320x240/224p 1600 1 73 157 204 240 1 4 3 15 0 0 0 60 0 32000000 1 #320x240/224p Alternate 
submitted by ErantyInt to crtgaming [link] [comments]

CRTPi-Project v1.0: The Retropie Image for CRT Users!

CRTPi-Project for Retropie (4.5.1)
DEPRECIATED BUILD, INSTALL V2.0 OR PM ME FOR DOWNLOAD
Changelog v1.0 for 888 & 666 11/7/2019
Changelog v1.0 for CRTPi-666 10/24/2019
Changelog: v1.0 for 888 & 666 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.4 for RCA 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 10/2/2019
Changelog: v0.2 09/27/2019
Changelog: v0.1 09/20/2019
What is a RetroTINK? Or a VGA666?
RetroTINK is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi3/3B+ that converts digital video signal back into 24-bit analog. It provides output over RCA, S-Video, Component, and VGA -- as well as supporting CSYNC, super-resolutions, and custom resolution timings.
VGA666 is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog out via VGA. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
Pi2SCART is a GPIO hat for the Raspberry Pi that converts digital video signal back into an 18-bit analog RGB out via SCART. It also allows for super-resolutions and custom resolution timings.
What Does That Even Mean?
It makes your Pi capable of outputting a true 240p analog signal for CRT televisions and monitors, and is capable of 5x (1600x240) and higher super resolutions.
What Does That Look Like?
I don't have the greatest pics saved for comparison, but here's some examples of the 888.
I also have some examples of the RCA image as well here.
What is Different? (888 & 666)
  • RetroPie 4.5.1 (Linux 9.9 Stretch) Commit 7f9bd33f (10/14/19)
  • 8GB (7892992 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 4994465 KB) for 888
  • 8GB (7892992 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 4994161 KB) for 666
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • RetroTINK /boot/config.txt settings for DPI output and custom HDMI timings
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • Michael Vencio's Runcommand “On Start” and “On End” scripts to automatically change the resolution system-by-system
  • Modified Runcommand "On Start" script to allow creation of game-specific arcade configs for arcade/fba/mame-libretro/neogeo
  • NTSC @ 60hz 320x240 resolution for Emulationstation and DOSBox/ScummVM/Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 1600x240 resolution for Retroarch
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Kodi 18.2 w/ Convergence Theme
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Preloaded with 5x1 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Preconfigured MOST Retroarch emulators for 5x1 Integer Scale SuperRes
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ nintendo-vc pallete + bilinear filtering
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with 5x1 Integer Scale Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with 5x1 Integer Scale Overlay
  • Retroarch PCSX-ReARMed (PSX) emulator preconfigured with vibration disabled + frame clock lowered to 55 + enabled interlacing modes, enhanced resolution, speedhack, and bilinear filtering
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini (default) and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Emulationstation preloaded with PietDAmore's 240p-Bubblegum theme
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
  • Custom Retropie menu scripts for enabling and disabling custom runcommand scripts
What is Different? (RCA)
  • RetroPie 4.5.1 (Linux 9.9 Stretch) Commit 231b13ab (10/20/19)
  • 8GB (7892992 KB) Uncompressed Image (Compressed via WinRAR to 5007158 KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Modified /boot/config.txt settings for Progressive Scan SDTV output
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi2 & Pi3B (disabled by default)
  • NTSC @ 60hz 640x480 Progressive Scan (240 Line) Resolution for Emulationstation
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with Kodi 18.2 w/ Convergence Theme @ 480i (must reboot after using)
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Preloaded with 4:3 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx pallete
  • Retroarch Picodrive (SMS/32X) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 with 2.5X Sega Mastersystem & 1X Sega 32X resolution
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with optmized SGB Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with optimized GBP Overlay
  • Retroarch PCSX-ReARMed (PSX) emulator preconfigured with vibration disabled + frame clock lowered to 55 + enabled interlacing modes, enhanced resolution, speedhack, and bilinear filtering
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini (default) and nes-mini themes configured for 4:3
  • Emulationstation preloaded with PietDAmore's 240p-Bubblegum theme
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copywritten games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot! 
DEPRECIATED BUILD, INSTALL V2.0 OR PM ME FOR DOWNLOAD
Default Retroarch Keyboard Hotkeys (888&666)
*SPACE: Enable Hotkey* F1 Menu F2 FF Toggle F3 Reset F4 Cheat Toggle F5 Save State F6 Load State F7 Change State - F8 Change State + F9 Screenshot F10 Mute ENTER: Exit 
I have X Issue! Help?
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
GBA, PSX, Neo-Geo, Sega-CD, PCE-CD, etc. games don't work!
I haven't included any bios's that didn't come with the retropie stock image, so you'll need to install the appropriate files in the BIOS folder. For Neo-Geo, I highly recommend the UniBios (renamed to neogeo.zip).
I don't like the NES settings on the 888/666 Image!
If you don't like the fuzzed out composite-emulated look and want to revert to a more pixel-perfect look for NES, change the following settings in lr-FCEUmm:
  • Quick Menu > Options > Pallete: ntsc-hardware-fbx
  • Settings > Video > Bilinear Filtering: OFF
  • Quick Menu > Overrides > Save Core Overrides
Once that's done, quit the emulator and relaunch.
I want to switch back to lr-mupen64plus!
  • When launching an n64 game, mash buttons on the controller until the runcommand window comes up.
  • Select on "1 Set default emulator for n64" and choose "lr-mupen64plus"
  • Then "Q Exit (without launching)"
  • via samba go to \retropie\configs\n64\ and rename "launching.png" to "launching-320.png" -- then rename "launching-1600.png" to "launching.png" (888&666 Only)
  • Launch the game again -- it will launch in the chosen emulator at the proper resolution
VGA666/Pi2SCART/RGB-Pi has
Unfortunately, I don't have a CRT monitor or display with a VGA or SCART port. I've changed the scripts and boot configs to the best of my abilities, tested all the parts through my RetroTINK using the SCART/VGA666 timings and configs -- but need YOUR help to test them on actual monitors!
My RGB-Pi cable doesn't work with VGA666 vX.X!
To use the VGA666 image with an RGB-Pi cable, you will need to add a custom boot config and overlays to the image. Take these steps:
That's it! All the other configs should work, as the boot and runcommand timings are the same as Pi2SCART/VGA666
Alternatively, you can add the files in the zip manually to the boot (FAT32) partition by plugging your SD card into your PC.
Alternatively, you can add the files in the zip manually to the boot (FAT32) partition by plugging your SD card into your PC.
What A/V cable should I use for 3.5mm Composite?
I recommend the Zune A/V cable, you can find them on eBay and Amazon.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
Timings for Boot and Runcommand
240p Timings: Emulationstation, DOSBox, ScummVM, etc.
320 1 23 25 39 240 1 4 3 15 1 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #RetroTINK 320 1 16 30 34 240 1 2 3 22 0 0 0 60 0 6400000 1 #VGA666/Pi2SCART/RGB-Pi 
240p 5x Timings: Retroarch Emulators
1600 1 85 157 192 240 1 4 3 15 0 0 0 60 0 32000000 1 #888 & 666 
submitted by ErantyInt to crtgaming [link] [comments]

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